What is Point of View in Fiction, and How Do We Use It?

Point of View (POV) and the narrator are key to the way everything is viewed and experienced in fiction. POV defines the narrator, and the narrator, who is just as much of a character as the protagonist, has significant control over the story's voice. Below, we look at point of view in depth, considering details like 1st person, 2nd person and 3rd person, as well as choice of vernacular, setting and metaphors. Read on for the keys to unlocking your narrator's point of view...

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Point of View Options

A story can change completely depending on the POV chosen, and each POV has its own unique relationship with the narrator. Literary Devices: Point Of View is a great article for information on writing in the different POV options.

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The choice of point-of-view will largely determine all other choices with regards to style, diction, characteristic speed of sentences and so on. What the writer must consider, obviously, is the extent to which point-of-view, and all that follow from it, comments on the characters, actions, and ideas.” – John Gardne

1st person POV

1st person POV naturally leans towards developing the narrating character, because, as a participating character, their personality should already exist. But actively merging the character and narration language with words and wording from the character’s perspective can make for an even stronger piece.

For best results in 1st person POV, the narrating character should be extremely well-developed in the writer’s mind. Although a generalised personality added to the mass appeal of Stephenie Meyer’s Twilight Saga by allowing readers to imprint their personality on Bella, Suzanne Collin’s Hunger Games Trilogy received equal mass appeal with the strong narration of Katniss, plus greater literary acclaim. It's also worth noting that 1st person is a common POV used in YA fiction in general.

2nd person POV

2nd person POV is considered the most difficult to use in fiction, but there are helpful resources, and successful novels, such as Jay McInerney’s Bright Lights, Big City, to help you get a feel for the writing style. After deciding whether the “you” is the narrator is referring to himself/herself, addressing another character or addressing the reader, careful word choices can portray the narrator personality and allude to the narrator-character-reader relationship. This reduces a lot of confusion that can come from reading this POV.




Literary devices_setting_observation3rd person POV: unlimited, limited and alternating

3rd person unlimited is the well-known omniscient narrator. While this narrator unfortunately can’t be based on a character, the voice of a strongly characterized narrator can be used for that extra depth. A great example of this is the narrator in Douglas Adam’s The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy who enjoys going off on quirky and often humorous tangents. (Click here for some quick tips on creating a great narrator personality.)

Curiously enough, the only thing that went through the mind of the bowl of petunias as it fell was Oh no, not again. Many people have speculated that if we knew exactly why the bowl of petunias had thought that we would know a lot more about the nature of the Universe than we do now.” – Douglas Adams, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy

3rd person POV limited has qualities of 1st person POV; the narration follows a single character’s experiences and thoughts, but without using “I”, “me” or “my”. This focused narrator can have a plain personality, a developed unique personality, or reflect the focal character through narration language as 1st person POV leans towards. Matching wording to the character in the latter option is an invaluable tool for extensive and subtle character development, as the most basic descriptions become a window: the world is shown through the character’s eyes, and the character is revealed through their world-view.

3rd person POV alternating is the same as 3rd person POV limited, except the focal character changes or alternates with scene or chapter breaks. If the narrator reflects the focal character, the narrator can also change with the focal character. Alternating narrators can produce some really unique and interesting effects, as author Sara Zarr explains:

When the reader and one narrator know something the other narrator does not, the opportunities for suspense and plot development and the shifting of reader sympathies get really interesting.”

Choosing the right vernacular

how to edit your own writing2The narrator’s personality, whether based on another character or not, is the foundation for every word you write. Likewise, the right vernacular can allude to the narrating character’s overall world-view, as well as their specific interests, hobbies and background information. A single adjective choice can portray a very different narrating character; the invigorating run, the challenging run and the barely-survivable run all indicate different characters with different athletic abilities and interests. This is where you really get to dig into that character profile — or start writing one up with some sample questions!

Setting and Description

If every aspect of a scene were described it would go on forever, so how do you choose what to describe and what not to? Everyone sees the world differently. When describing setting, consider what the narrating character would notice. Some features, such as a raging dinosaur, every character would notice and describe. However, some would be more likely to notice the colour, or the sound or the smell. In addition, not all characters would notice a teddy bear sitting in a corner of a cluttered room, and their noticing could be mixed with a feeling of fondness, or of loss. In this way, not only is a scene described, but aspects of the character’s personality or back-story is alluded to.travel makes you better write

It is impossible to powerfully capture a place via objective description—at least to capture it in a way that readers will not skim. Only through the eyes and heart of a character does place come truly alive.” – Donald Maass, The Fire in Fiction

Vocabulary levels, sentence structure and the use contractions and slang in description can convey the age, education and socioeconomic standing of the narrating character. A seven-year-old is unlikely to use or even know the word “ornate” or “jugular”. Of course, breaking expectations can lead to great effects. If a child narrator sounded very adult, he/she is likely to have a very interesting history, as long as it is established that the narrator isn’t an adult reflecting on their childhood.

Metaphors and Similes

Using metaphors and similes is a bit like Goldilocks and the Three Bears; you need to use just the right amount. But that “right” amount is different for every story. Consider the dilemma through the narrator or focal character: how often would they use metaphors or similes? If the character is a seasoned soldier, it’s possible the answer is never. Unless the seasoned soldier has a secret passion for poetry, and, if that passion were immense and suppressed, the narration could be full of all the metaphors and similes bursting from within the character’s heart.reading in solitude

How a character uses metaphors and similes may also vary; one may often describe objects as animals (“the teapot was a broody hen”, “she walked like a panther”), and one may regularly use metaphors or similes to describe setting (“the tree was a skyscraper”, “the station felt like a cave”).

Dialogue

Learning how to choose the words that the character would is also important when writing dialogue. Consider the same issues that arise with writing setting, description, metaphors and similes in the focal character’s voice. Remember to consider interests, vocabulary levels, slang and what aspects of their personality they keep hidden. Matching the narration voice with the dialogue voice of the focal character strengthens the credibility of the narrator and the depth that the narrator appears to reflect the character.Art of Editing 3

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By adding to the POV choice with a strong narrator character, a piece becomes deeper and more personal. People relate to people, and whether you are a character-driven writer or not, you can use narrating characters to portray your story in a unique and engaging way.

What is most important to me is that my narrator's voice is believable, and that, though it is clearly an absolute fiction, it has the emotional resonance of memoir.” – Chris Bohjalian

POV is the starting point for everything; it plays such a foundational role in writing that simply taking the time to consider words through the narrating character’s personality brings the whole work to a new level. Who will be the narrator of your next story?

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